Arthrosis of the joints

arthrosis of the joints

Arthrosis of the joints is a chronic joint disease that develops due to metabolic disorders. As a result, degenerative, dystrophic changes and destruction of cartilage tissue occur.

It occurs invisibly, but often develops very quickly. A person begins to feel pain in the joints when moving, stiffness and reduced mobility, especially in the morning, is still "not mixed". If discomfort arises and periodic pain occurs during awkward movements or loads, it is very important to understand that it will not go away and the condition will worsen without intervention.

Symptoms of arthrosis

Arthrosis of large and medium joints seriously changes a person's lifestyle, deteriorates its quality, and imposes limitations. The development of the disease is like an avalanche, and the treatment is most often associated with unbearable pain, which is a clear sign of wear of the joints.

Symptoms of arthrosis of the joints depend on how much the joint, cartilage tissue and nearby tissues are affected.

In the initial stages, arthrosis can be identified quite precisely, in this case, the treatment is economical and does not require serious intervention and expensive drugs for the treatment of arthrosis.

Types of arthrosis

Arthrosis of the joints is classified according to several criteria. Depending on the degree of arthrosis changes in the cartilage tissue, 4 stages of arthrosis are distinguished. Arthrosis is also divided into primary and secondary. The reason for the development of primary arthrosis is age-related changes. Secondary arthrosis is caused by joint injuries and diseases (for example, traumatic arthrosis or rheumatoid arthrosis). The disease can also develop slowly over years or lead to the destruction of the joint after a few years (progressive arthrosis).

there is alsoTypes of arthrosis depending on the affected area:

  • - arthrosis of the knee joint - arthrosis of the hip joint
  • Uncovertebral arthrosis - arthrosis of the cervical vertebrae
  • Vertebral arthrosis - damage to the spine
  • Patellofemoral arthrosis is a type of gonarthrosis in which the patella and part of the femur suffer.

The degree of the disease is determined by the degree of cartilage tissue damage.

1st degree arthrosis - the cartilage tissue is slightly damaged, the person does not feel discomfort;

Arthrosis II degree - osteophytes appear, the space between the cartilages decreases, situational pain occurs with awkward movements;

III degree arthrosis - the cartilage tissue is destroyed in places and exposes the bone tissue, the space between the cartilages decreases, the pain is frequent and severe;

IV degree arthrosis - a significant part of the cartilage tissue is destroyed up to 60%, there is no space between the bones, patients experience constant, severe pain, hyperthermia of the region above the joint occurs.

stages of arthrosis
  • A characteristic crisis and a slight background aching pain during movements;
  • Restriction of joint mobility during full physical activity, discomfort;
  • "Jump" blood pressure readings;
  • Headache and dizziness;
  • Convulsive syndrome and frequent muscle spasms;
  • Visually observed joint deformation;
  • Swelling, hyperthermia or redness of the skin area over the affected joint;
  • Impairment of motor function.

Why does the disease appear?

Arthrosis of the joints can manifest itself in any department, but in most cases, patients turn when arthrosis of the knee or hip joint makes itself felt. In the professional field, with a special load on the hands, shoulder arthrosis can be observed.

Lesions are different in men and women.The strong half often suffers from temporomandibular, wrist, ankle and lumbar arthrosis. Women complain more often about the chest and neck areas, as well as the joints of the fingers and thumbs.

The type of disease is determined by the location of the lesion. There are the following types:

  • hip joint arthrosis - coxarthrosis;
  • arthrosis of the knee joint - gonarthrosis;
  • damage to the patella and part of the femur - patellofemoral arthrosis (a type of gonarthrosis);
  • spine disease - vertebral arthrosis;
  • damage to the cervical spine - uncovertebral arthrosis.

The main reasons are:

  • inflammatory process;
  • professional sports;
  • overweight;
  • professional non-standard load, for example, squatting or kneeling;
  • previous joint injuries (post-traumatic);
  • hypothermia;
  • heredity;
  • age changes.

Arthritis can appear as an independent disease or it can be the result of an already ongoing disease, so it is important to know a person's history.

Diagnosis of arthrosis of the joints

Arthrosis of the joints is determined by X-rays. The X-ray image shows how the joint is deformed and how much the joint space is narrowed. An MRI or arthroscopy may also be necessary, but only in particularly complex and uncertain cases. Usually, x-rays of the joints are enough to diagnose the disease.

affected joint

A comprehensive diagnosis is made to understand the presence of the disease, its severity, as well as what disorders cause the disease.

First, with the helpx-rays in different projectionsto get information about the degree of damage to the joint.

Tomography (magnetic resonance or computed tomography) helpsexclude tumor processes.

Third, you needpass the teststo understand whether arthrosis is an independent disease or a complication, as well as to determine the general condition of a person.

The complex of studies is the most informative and gives a clear idea of degenerative-dystrophic changes and helps to choose the optimal treatment plan.

Treatment of arthrosis

As discussed above, arthrosis can develop due to many factors, and the treatment plan is developed based on understanding the underlying causes, and drugs for the treatment of arthrosis are selected accordingly.

Treatment should be prepared individually based on the results of the diagnosis. Be sure to take into account the person's condition, existing diseases.

arthrosis of the foot

The restoration of the articular surface and cartilage tissue is not fast. Effective drugs with side effects are prescribed. To get the desired result, it takes up to 6 months to take the medicine. Therefore, it is important to protect your health from adverse effects as much as possible.

Medical treatment of arthrosis

The main goal of such therapy is to eliminate the manifestations of arthrosis. Drug treatment of arthrosis of the joints includes:

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. With arthrosis, a person experiences pain, joint inflammation occurs. This group of drugs is prescribed to eliminate unpleasant symptoms and stop inflammation.
  • Hormonal injections into the joints. Corticosteroid drugs are most often used in the acute phase of arthrosis.
  • Chondroprotectors. The main task of these drugs is to stop degenerative processes to prevent further destruction of cartilage tissue.
  • Intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid preparations are similar to synovial fluid, which provides sliding and smooth free movement in the joint. With arthrosis, synovial fluid is not secreted enough, so orthopedists often prescribe hyaluronic acid injections (joint injection with arthrosis).
  • Biological therapy of arthrosis (PRP and cytokine therapy). A new innovative method of arthrosis therapy, which has recently entered into practice, but is gaining popularity. This is the use of drugs based on the patient's blood plasma enriched with platelets. Thanks to biological therapy, the blood supply to the joint is activated, the production of intra-articular fluid is activated, and the cartilage tissue is supplied with nutrients.

It is important!Drug treatment of arthrosis is effective in the early stages of the disease. Also, experts emphasize that drug treatment is not able to restore the damaged joint, but it will allow to eliminate the symptoms and slow down the development of arthrosis.

Physiotherapy and other conservative treatment methods for arthrosis

Physiotherapy is also used in the fight against arthrosis. Various procedures (laser, phonophoresis, electrophoresis, magnetotherapy, UVT) and exercise therapy are prescribed to improve metabolic processes and blood circulation, strengthen muscles.

In addition, you should make some adjustments to your lifestyle with arthrosis:

  • Avoid overloading - it's important to evenly distribute activity and take breaks to avoid joint overload
  • Pay attention to nutrition and control weight - you need to review your diet and reduce body weight, as excess weight only aggravates the problem in the joints.
  • Remember to be careful and avoid damage as much as possible
  • Use additional support for movement - in the later stages of arthrosis, independent movement is doubtful, so you should use a cane or crutches. You can also use orthopedic insoles for more comfortable walking - they will reduce the load on the joint.

There are also many folk recipes that will "help defeat arthrosis". However, treating arthrosis at home does not always work. Moreover, the use of all kinds of lotions and ointments with their own preparation often only causes allergic reactions and does not affect the health of the joint.

Surgical treatment of osteoarthritis

surgical treatment of arthrosis

How to treat arthrosis if all of the above methods do not work? In this case, surgical treatment of arthrosis is prescribed. The type of operation is selected depending on the degree of damage to the joint and the individual characteristics of each patient.

Joint arthroscopy is a low-traumatic intervention, an intra-articular operation through several micro-punctures in the joint. With arthrosis, it is used as a temporary measure to "clean the joint": remove parts of cartilage that prevent free movement, osteophyte growths. Such treatment reduces pain in the joint, but it is not a solution to the problem of arthrosis.

Osteotomy is an operation to align the axis of the joint. The fact is that with arthrosis, as a rule, one part of the joint suffers more (there is a greater load). As a result of osteotomy, the load on the joint is redistributed. It should be noted that arthrosis is a progressive disease of the joints. Therefore, osteotomy is a way to delay further treatment, but not to avoid it.

Joint arthroplasty is an effective and in some cases the only method of treating arthrosis of the joints. The essence of the operation is to remove the joint destroyed by the disease and replace it with an artificial endoprosthesis. The artificial joint is selected individually, ideally fits each patient, and after a period of rehabilitation, it fully restores the functions of the damaged joint.

Contraindications for arthrosis

What to pay attention to in arthrosis of the joints:

Joint loads- with arthrosis, you should refuse lifting weights, excessive static loads. A cane can be used to loosen the joint. Shoes – Properly fitting shoes reduce stress on the joint. It is advisable to avoid high heels.

Weight- excess weight is another factor in the progression of arthrosis. Therefore, it is important to maintain a healthy weight and eat a balanced diet.

Sportsshould also be considered. With arthrosis, it is necessary to exclude sharp jerky movements (contact sports, wrestling), long-distance running, weight lifting. But this does not mean that physical activity should be completely stopped. Moderate activity will only benefit the joint.

In addition to medical treatment, physiotherapy is also actively used. These are magnetotherapy, electrotherapy, thermotherapy. In addition, physiotherapy exercises are recommended to strengthen the muscles around the affected joint and improve blood supply.

A radical method for the deformation of arthrosis, which leads to a deterioration in the quality of life, is often surgical intervention. At this time, either arthroscopy or arthroplasty is performed.

Arthroscopy is a procedure to remove the top layer of the worn joint and replace it with a partial prosthesis. This allows you to get rid of pain and restore mobility.

Endoprostheses are the replacement of a joint with a prosthesis. When joint self-rescue is pointless, it is suitable for serious destruction. The prosthesis consists of artificial cartilage that is anatomically identical to the human body.

Treatment of the disease at the initial stage is the provision of high-quality nutrition for the cartilage tissue. For this purpose, the use of chondroprotectors, preferably flavonoids of natural origin, is recommended. Motor load is also necessary to improve blood supply to the bones and perichondrium.

Deforming arthrosis of the knee

Deformative arthrosis of the knee joint(gonarthrosis, DAK) is a chronic progressive disease of articular cartilage. It is characterized by destruction of articular structures accompanied by pain, inflammation and characteristic curvature of the limb ("wheel legs" or X-shaped deformity).

Causes of deforming arthrosis of the knee

Without proper lubrication, the joint "dry", cracks and loses height, exposing the heads of the bones. In this case, the closing plate of the articular surface of the bone remains unprotected; re-irritation of the numerous nerve endings in it causes pain and discomfort.

The following factors or their combination can be the cause of knee deforming arthrosis:

  • the presence of joint (and especially knee) diseases in relatives;
  • genetic disorders associated with the formation of abnormal, unstable cartilage cells or their accelerated death;
  • congenital and acquired defects of the locomotor system (flat feet, joint hypermobility, dysplasia, scoliosis, kyphosis, etc. );
  • extreme professional, domestic or sports loads;
  • microtraumas and injuries of the knee joint and meniscus, operations on it, leg fractures;
  • circulatory disorders (varicose veins, atherosclerosis, thrombosis and other vascular diseases), their consequences (dissecting osteochondritis), as well as other causes of long-term leg spasms;
  • inflammatory diseases of joints and periarticular tissues (synovitis, bursitis, tendinitis, arthritis), including. autoimmune nature (rheumatoid, psoriatic arthritis);
  • metabolic disorders (gout, diabetes mellitus);
  • age-related processes related to aging of joints and leaching of calcium from bones;
  • hormonal disorders and changes in the hormonal background (for example, related to estrogen deficiency in women);
  • hypovitaminosis;
  • overweight (observed in ⅔ of patients);
  • physical inactivity.

However, the main reason why deforming arthrosis of the knee is so common is in its structure. The knee joint has only one axis (plane) of motion. Therefore, the scope of permissible actions is very limited. An awkward turn can damage the periarticular tissues and cause arthrosis changes - after all, the painful knee will be subjected to daily stress.

The reasons for the development of deforming arthrosis of the knee can be many factors.

deforming knee arthrosis

Symptoms of deforming arthrosis of the knee joint

Gradually increasing pain in the region of the knee joint. At first, the pain is noticeable only when moving - for example, with a sharp straightening or bending of the leg, there is a feeling of "unfortunately, it stepped on the leg. "In the early stages, pain may be episodic or so weak that it is perceived as discomfort. Then the pain intensifies after physical exertion or staying in the same position for a long time. The skin is also painful - it reacts with sensitivity to any touch, including. and clothes.

There are 3 types of specific pain in deforming arthrosis of the knee joint:

  • onset (lasts 15-30 minutes after coming out of a long resting state);
  • mechanical (feels during physical activity and disappears after rest);
  • blockade (a sharp pinching sensation in the knee).

Symptoms of deforming arthrosis of the knee, as a rule, grow slowly due to the fact that the disease is not characterized by rapid development. This is the insidiousness of arthrosis - it gradually gets used to the discomfort of the disease, the patient "gets used to" the pain, does not notice the deterioration and postpones a visit to the doctor.

Knowing the main symptoms of deforming arthrosis of the knee will help to recognize the disease in time

Treatment of deforming arthrosis of the knee joint

Treatment of deforming arthrosis of the knee joint consists of the complex use of drugs, dosage load on the joint, physiotherapy procedures and the use of orthopedic devices.

During the healing process, alternating loading and unloading is extremely important to avoid static loading of the knee. Orthopedic insoles, special shoes, canes, crutches, walkers, ergonomic chairs for work and rest also help slow down the disease. Especially effective are orthoses with a variable stiffener, which allows you to model the physiological axis of the foot and compensate for the deformation.

In the early stages of deforming arthrosis of the knee, the goal of treatment is to restore the destroyed joint and ligament apparatus, relieve pain and increase the range of voluntary movements. Later - in alleviating the patient's condition. For this, when the osteophyte fragment is broken, remedial arthroscopy (washing with antiseptics), corrective osteotomy (correction of a crooked bone), joint endoprosthetics (replacement) is performed.

In addition to the orthopedist, physiotherapists and chiropractors, exercise therapy and therapeutic massage specialists and surgeons will tell you how to treat deforming arthrosis of the knee joint.

Treatment of deforming arthrosis of the joints is a complex and long process that requires a complex approach.

physiotherapy for knee osteoarthritis


For the treatment of deforming arthrosis of the knee joint, among other physiotherapeutic methods, the following are used:

  • laser and magnetotherapy;
  • microwave therapy;
  • shock wave therapy;
  • amplipulse;
  • ultrasound therapy;
  • analgin, novocaine, chymotrypsin, etc. electrophoresis with;
  • phonophoresis with glucocorticoids;
  • paraffin and ozokerite applications;
  • cryotherapy;
  • acupuncture;
  • joint traction and kinesitherapy;
  • balneotherapy.

Massage for deforming arthrosis of the knee joint

Therapeutic and lymphatic drainage massage for deforming arthrosis of the knee joint, as well as manual therapy, is performed by a specialist after the inflammation in the joint is removed. For self-massage at home, hitting and rubbing, as well as movements aimed at stretching muscles and ligaments, deep warming up (the latter is carried out after the warming effect) are recommended. Self-massage goes well with local irritants and essential oils. Remember that with deforming arthrosis of the knee joint, massage is performed on both joints, even if only one of them is affected.

Exercises for deforming arthrosis of the knee joints

Therapeutic gymnastics (exercise therapy) for deformation of osteoarthritis of the knee joint is performed in a sitting or lying position, water aerobics is also effective. A set of individual exercises for deformation of osteoarthritis of the knee joint is designed by the instructor. Below we offer a short warm-up aimed at strengthening the leg muscles.

  1. Sit on the floor, legs straight, hands behind the back. Curl and spread your toes.
  2. The starting position is the same, slowly bend your leg, at the end of the movement put your toe on the floor. Repeat with the leg behind the other leg.
  3. Continue in the same starting position, extend the leg in front of you, raise the toe towards you.
  4. Without changing the starting position, we pull our hands straight to the toes.
  5. Sitting on the floor, hug your bent knee and try to lift your other leg off the floor.
  6. Sitting on the floor, spread your legs shoulder width apart. Turn your feet alternately so that the toe moves 180 degrees.
  7. Sit on the floor, legs bent. Roll your foot from heel to toe, feeling the work in the back of your thighs.

Excellent! Do exercises to deform osteoarthritis of the knee joint at least 3-6 times a day.

Medicines that deform knee arthrosis

Drug treatment of deforming arthrosis of the knee joint allows you to quickly stop acute pain, reduce inflammation and swelling, and improve nutrition of the joint. Therefore, drugs are used at all stages of the disease and help to restore mobility of the knee.


Chondroprotectors in the form of tablets, capsules, packets and injections are used to restore and maintain synovial cartilage.


Steroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to treat deforming arthrosis of the knee joint. They are prescribed in the form of tablets, injections, packs, creams, ointments and other products for external and internal use.

Anti-inflammatory drugs can be used together with anesthetics, which are injected into the joint space as a block.


Eliminating the spasm is necessary to return the patient to normal activity and ensure the normal supply of nutrients to the tissues.


Preparations based on horse chestnut and others are used to deform arthrosis of the knee joint.

Warming agents

Among the warming agents, it is worth highlighting preparations based on natural substances: snake and bee venom, hot pepper, mustard.

All these drugs improve blood supply to tissues and relieve pain.

Nutrition for knee arthrosis deformation

A healthy diet for deforming arthrosis of the knee joint includes foods with a reduced content of trans fats and "fast" carbohydrates. Preference should be given to lean meat and fish, seafood and vegetables, steamed, foil or covered vegetables. Fruits, berries and drinks rich in antioxidants are also useful - wild plants, blueberries, lingonberries, cranberries, high-quality green tea and coffee. You can also eat whole grains, legumes.
But potatoes, white bread, sweets, ready meals, fast food and alcohol should be excluded.

If you are overweight with deforming osteoarthritis of the knee, consider low-carb diet options.